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The food manufacturing industry in the U.S. consists of over 615,000 businesses and employs over 12 million workers . These people work to provide sustenance that is flavorful and safe. The manufacturing process encompasses how to produce the food in bulk, how to ensure the recipe remains homogenous and consistent, how to package the food for easy retrieval and use, and much more.
Some of the ingredients that are most useful in the food manufacturing industry include waxes, thickeners, and gums. These are all safe and effective, playing important roles in the manufacture of food, but many people know little about them. Learn about how each one enhances the food manufacturing process, and reach out to Brenntag North America Food and Nutrition to learn more.
While most people are familiar with wax paper and other food contact materials, wax is also commonly found on and in foods. This invisible, odorless, and tasteless coating can cover several types of foods, including fruit, vegetables, cheese, and candy. Wax is commonly used for:
The use of food waxes is hardly new to the food industry. Edible films were used as early as the 1100s in China as a way to preserve oranges as they were transported from one region to another, and European merchants employed hog fat for centuries to preserve fruit in a similar way. Today's waxes are more sophisticated than these but use similar principles.
Food-grade waxes come from several sources, and all are safe to add to foods. Food waxes come in three primary types:
These waxes are safe to add to our foods for two primary reasons. First, waxes do not transfer chemicals onto food. Second, eating waxes will not cause you to absorb any components within the wax because humans cannot digest wax — it passes through the digestive system untouched, without the digestive system breaking down or absorbing any of the wax's components.
One of the most commonly used waxes in the food industry is paraffin wax, which Brenntag supplies along with candelilla wax, carnauba wax and rice bran wax. Paraffin wax is a petroleum-derived wax employed throughout the food industry, especially in food packaging.
This type of wax is used as a preservative coating on fruits and vegetables and is also found in the hard wrappers of hard cheeses. Manufacturers rely on it for several types of candy. They add paraffin to chocolate to help it remain solid at room temperature while also giving it a glossy finish. They also create hard coatings for candies with paraffin to help retain the candies' shapes. Cured sausages also get coated with paraffin wax to give them added luster.
The primary purpose of a thickener is exactly what it sounds like — adding thickening agent to a food will thicken any fluids in the food without substantially altering other properties like taste. This is only the beginning of what thickeners can do for food. Thickeners also can achieve the following food properties:
Food thickeners are extensively used in the food industry in foods like yogurt, jelly, ice cream, and gravy.
Food thickeners derive from natural products and are safe to use in food manufacturing. There are several food thickeners available, but they come in two primary categories — polysaccharides and proteins:
While these thickeners are safe, some thickeners are more suitable for certain applications than others due to differences in taste, texture, and chemical makeup. For example, arrowroot and cornstarch are both polysaccharide starches — while both are effective thickeners, arrowroot is a better choice than cornstarch for acidic or cold foods because cornstarch is less potent in acidic mixtures and low temperatures.
Cellulosics are used as thickening agents in food but are also used as stabilizers and protective colloids. Brenntag provides several varieties of cellulosics from Ashland, including CMC, HMC, and HPMC.
Cellulose is derived primarily from wood, forming nearly half of the cells in wood and other plants. It became a popular food additive in the form of cellulosic primarily due to its ability to be used as a thickening agent, emulsifier, and stabilizer. Wood has been used as a food additive since ancient times, providing texture and consistency to foods when pulped. Since cellulose is indigestible by humans, it is a useful ingredient for increasing bulk and is particularly desirable in the production of low-calorie foods.
Food gums are a specific type of thickener. Made up of polysaccharides, food gums are tasteless and odorless and are added to foods to lend them the following properties:
Gums are used across the food manufacturing industry in similar applications as thickening agents, though they are particularly common in dairy products, fruit products, and candies.
Food gums, like thickeners, are safe for human consumption and very effective. Food gums are almost exclusively vegetable gums of natural origin, coming from plant sources of all types. The most common food gums are:
While all the food gums listed above are safe to use in food, selecting the right one is essential. Some gums, like xanthan gum, are highly versatile and can be used in several food types, while others, like locust bean gum, show the greatest effectiveness in certain temperature ranges.
One of the most broadly used food gums is guar gum, which Brenntag supplies. Guar gum is commonly used in beverages of all types, canned foods, cooked foods, dairy products, jellies, frostings, ice cream, sauces, syrups, and baked goods.
Guar gum is derived from the seeds of the plant Cyamopsis tetragonoloba, primarily found in the Middle East and South Asia. Guar gum became popular in the United States in the 1940s and '50s as a replacement for locust bean gum and quickly gained traction. Now, guar gum is used as an emulsifier and thickening agent in the food industry, helping to stabilize and suspend liquid-solid foods. All of these benefits can be achieved by adding guar gum in amounts of less than 1% of the total food weight .
Food gums, thickeners, and waxes are important additives in the food productionindustry, creating products that are delicious and fresh. Finding additives that demonstrate the high quality you desire can be a challenge — that's where Brenntag North America Food and Nutrition can help.
Brenntag is a leading distributor for the food industry, providing superlative food ingredients and additives from around the world. Brenntag offers a wide range of food additives for the food manufacturing industry, both natural and synthetic, and works hard to ensure the products we source are the best. With unparalleled experience in a broad range of industries, we know what you're looking for and work with top suppliers to provide the materials you need to keep your operation running. You can trust Brenntag to connect you with the products you need through our network of more than 190 locations.
Contact Brenntag today to learn more about our food additive solutions.
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