During stimulation process strong acids are pumped into the wells to reduce the formation damage. Corrosion inhibitor is always necessary and must be added during all acidizing stages to slow the attack of acid corrosion on drillpipe, coiled tubing, production string and other metal parts that the acid contact during treatment.
Brenntag provides wide range of corrosion inhibitors:
- Brenntacor 6010 for low temperature
- Brenntacor 6115 and Brenntacor 6120 for low to medium temperature
- Brenntacor 6125 for medium temperature
- Brenntacor 6150 for high temperature
- Brenntacor 6210 for organic acids
To inhibit acid corrosion at temperatures higher than 110°C it is usually required to add intensifier.
Brenntag provides two intensifiers:
- Brenntacor AID 10 for medium temperature
- Brenntacor AID 20 for high temperature
Iron control is important aspect in any acidizing treatment. Iron occurs naturally in formation waters, but one of the most prominent sources of iron are tubulars. Acid during treatment flows for a relatively long time dissolving rust covering pipe. Iron control agents prevent solid precipitation by reacting with dissolved iron and other dissolved metal ions. Effective iron control may also reduce sludge formation. This type of products fall into two general categories: iron- sequestering agents and iron-reducing agents.
Brenntag provides wide range of iron control agents:
- TN- Iron 11P - Iron Reducing Agent
- TN-IRON 15 - Iron Reducing Agent
- TN- Iron 20 - Iron Sequestrin Agent
- TN-IRON 30 - Iron Sequestering Agent
- TN- Iron 70 Iron sequestering Agent
The surfactant molecule consists of a water- soluble (hydrophilic) and an oil- soluble (lipophilic) group. Surface active agents are used during acidizing treatment to reduce surface and/or interfacial tension, break undesirable emulsions, speed cleanup, alter wettability, prevent sludge formation and disperse additives. Surfactants fall into five general groups:
- TN-FBK 50 – micellar additive
- TN-IFT 30 – blend of surfactants
Antisludge agents are the special class of chemicals that prevents from forming sludge when acid contacts crude oil. Certain surfactants are effective in preventing the formation of sludge during treatment.
Antisludge agents provided by Brenntag:
- TN-AS 10 – anionic anti sludge agent
- TN-AS 65 – cationic anti-sludge agent
Non-emulsifiers are surfactant additivies that are added to acid during treatment preventing from acid- oil emulsification.
Nonemulsifiers provided by Brenntag:
- TN-NE 10 – Anionic Non-emulsifier
- TN-NE 30 – Nonionic Non-emulsifier
A clay stabilizer is used for preventing migration and/or swelling of clays and fines following during acidizing. Clay stabilizers function by being adsorbed, usually by electrostatic attraction or iron exchange on the minerals to be stabilized.
Brenntag provides wide range of clay stabilizers:
- Brenntahib P30 – permanent clay control agent
- Brenntahib CL75 – temporary clay control agent
- Brenntahib F60 – organosilane based
H2S may enter to the treatment fluid during acidizing form subsurface formations. H2S scavengers are chemicals that remove H2S and form a nonhazardous and noncorrosive product.
H2S Scavenger provided by Brenntag:
Foaming agents are used during foam acid treatment which increase return production of spent acid in well by reducing fluid gravity and surface tension of injected fluids.
Foaming agent provided by Brenntag:
- TN-FOAM 10
The purpose of using self-diverting agent is to create viscous acid which reduce fluid loss and slow the rate of acid diffusion outward to the rock surfaces.
Brenntag provides Polymer based self-diverting system
- TN-PD 10
- TN-PD 20
Brenntag provides surfactant based self-diverting system
Polymers are added to the acid in order to increase its viscosity and allow it to disperse uniformly in the heterogeneous near-wellbore area.
- Xantham Gum – for low temperature applications
- TN-AG 40 – for low to mid temperature applications
- TN-AG 60 – for mid to high temperature applications
Solids soluble in hydrocarbons are added to acidizing fluids in order to temporarily block near-wellbore area of highest permeability. It is usually used for long-intervall wells with high permeability contrast.
- TN-Block 120 – low-grade resin soluble in hydrocarbons
Brenntag has been developing for last few years system for water shut off applications based on crosslinked polyacrylamide
- TN- WS 10 – Water Shut Off Polymer
- TN-XL CR1 – Crosslinking Agent
The main task of fracturing fluids is to create and increase the effective range of the fracture by transfering hydraulic energy from high pressure pumps on the surface to the reservoir being fractured.
The rheological properties of fracturing fluids play a key role as they directly influence the effectiveness of the fracturing treatment. The choice of fluid for a given treatment depends on various application criteria that affect the design, execution and cost of the stimulation project as well as subsequent production.
Brenntag Polska has a wide range of additives for hydraulic fracturing treatments that are ready to meet the most complex requirements. Depending on the client's needs , reservoir and treatment parameters, we can provide single additives as well as comprehensive solutions and complete fluid systems.We understand that each reservoir and each well may present various challenges, which should be considered separately when formulating a frac fluid in order to reduce its costs, ensure that its rheological parameters are maintained and ensure full compatibility of fracturing fluids with the reservoir.
With an access to its modern research facilities, Brenntag Polska offers:
- individual approach to client,
- analysis of treatment water,
- preparation and optimization of stimulation fluids systems,
- technological support,
Brenntag Polska focuses on continuous development so as to provide its customers with the highest quality products and help achieve better results at a lower cost.
In cases where an increased viscosity or transferability of the proppant is necessary, gelling materials or thickeners that give adequate rheological properties are required.
These additives are divided into products of organic and inorganic origin. Gelling materials are based on natural polymers such as guar gum and cellulose together with and derivatives like HPG, CMHPG and HEC that are resistant to temperatures up to 150 ° C. Synthetic thickeners are mostly based on acrylamide polymers and copolymers whose thermal stability can reach up to 200 ° C, and on viscoelastic surfactants, the tolerance of which reaches 150 ° C.
Increasing the viscosity occurs by increasing the concentration of these products in the treatment fluid. Product selection and concentration optimization are usually determined by laboratory tests.
Brenntag Polska offers a number of gelling materials:
- TN-GA GG / TN-GA GGL - guar gum in the form of concentrate or powder
- TN-GA HPG / TN-GA HPGL - HPG in the form of concentrate or powder
Crosslinking is the most efficient way to increase the viscosity of fracturing fluids in an economical way by increasing the molecular weight of the polymer. This allows to provide the appropriate rheological properties necessary to transfer the the higher concentration of proppant and increase fluid's thermal stability. Crosslinkers are divided into instant and delayed products. The main purpose of delaying the crosslinking time is to reduce the friction pressure, in addition the extra time allows to mitigate the negative effects of high shear rates occurring in the surface equipment and in the well that would degrade the rheological parameters of the fluid.
The most commonly used cross-links are boron compounds and minerals that cross-link in the range of 8,5 to 11 pH. The second family of cross-linking compounds are products based on transition metal complexes such as zirconium, which are characterized by higher thermal resistance (160 ° C) and applicability at both low and high pH. Modification of rheological parameters occurs through changes in the concentration of these products in the treatment fluid and adjustment of the pH range. Product selection and concentration optimization are usually determined by laboratory tests.
Brenntag Polska offers a number of crosslinking materials:
- TN-XL 10 - instant crosslinker based on boron
- TN-XL 80 - instant crosslinker based on boron
- TN-XL 100 - delayed crosslinker based on boron
Buffers, depending on their type, are used in fracturing fluids for several purposes.They improve the dispersion of polymers in water and accelerate their hydration rate. Their most important function however, is the influence on the rate of cross-linking reaction and resulting fluid stability. These buffers can be acidic or alkaline. Product selection and concentration optimization are usually determined by laboratory tests.
Brenntag Polska offers the following buffers:
- TN-BF LZ - low pH buffer
- TN-BF B - high pH buffer
The main reason for the uncontrolled breakdown of crosslinked fluids is the presence of dissolved oxygen and its free radicals in the fluid mixture. Gel stabilizers are used to prevent rapid degradation of rheological parameters of cross-linked fluids. This is especially vital when the treatment liquids are exposed to high temperatures. Product selection and concentration optimization are usually determined by laboratory tests.
Brenntag Polska offers the following stabilizers:
- TN-GS 163 - product based on amines
- TN-GS 165 - product based on inorganic salts
After a fracturing treatment and placing the proppant within the fracture, the viscosity of the treatment fluid must be reduced enough to allow proppant to settle in the fracture.Breakers reduce the viscosity of liquids, decreasing the molecular mass of polymers by destroying their chemical bonds.This ensures efficient cleaning of the proppant pack and the fracture face as well as easier retrieval of fluid on the surface without damaging the permeability obtained and eliminating the effectiveness of the treatment.Depending on the needs , and parameters of the treatment, breakers based on enzymes or oxidants can be used. The selection of a product and concentration optimization are usually determined by laboratory tests.
Brenntag Polska offers a number of viscosity breakers:
- TN-BK 20 - oxidizer based on chlorine compounds
- TN-BK 30 - oxidizer based on chlorine compounds
- TN-BK AID - catalyst based on inorganic salts
- TN-BK 101P - delayed encapsulated oxidant
During fracturing operations and operations utilizing Coiled Tubing, a significant amount of energy is lost due to turbulent fluid flow .The resulting friction loss create undesirable high pressures at the surface and in consequence increase equipment wear and operational costs . Friction reducers are used to limit turbulent flow and minimize pressure loss due to friction in pipes and pumps.When selecting the product, it is important to ensure that the friction reducer is compatible with the treatment water and other additives. Product selection and concentration optimization are usually determined by laboratory tests.
Brenntag Polska offers a number of crosslinking materials:
- TN-FRR 50 - cationic friction reducer in the form of emulsion
- TN-FRR 40 - anionic friction reducer in the form of an emulsion
- TN-FRR 40P - anionic reducer in the form of granules
Surfactants are a group of important additives that fulfill several roles during fracturing operations.They are used to provide adequate wettability of the rock, and to reduce the surface tension, which makes recovery of the treatment liquid after fracturing more effective, thereby increasing the relative permeability to hydrocarbons.In addition, they reduce the interfacial tension between the reservoir fluids and water, which can contribute to emulsion formation and consequent reduction of permeability. Product selection and concentration optimization are usually determined by laboratory tests.
Brenntag Polska currently has on offer:
- TN-FBK 50 - micro emulsion supporting fluid recovery
Prevention of clay swelling in water-sensitive formations such as shale rocks is one of the most important actions that must be taken into account when designing the treatment and fracturing fluid.These types of rocks tend to absorb the liquid being used during fracturing. This in turn leads to their swelling, dispersion and migration which may result in the loss of natural and produced permeability.This undesirable effect is limited by addition of special inhibitors. Inhibitors are divided into salt substitutes (temporary) and permanent inhibitors (long-term).Product selection and concentration optimization are usually determined by laboratory tests.
Brenntag Polska currently has on offer:
- BRENNTAHIB P30 - a permanent amine-based inhibitor
- BRENNTAHIB Cl75 - a temporary ammonium salt based inhibitor
- BRENNTAHIB P60 - permanent polymer-based inhibitor