WHAT IS COOLING WATER TREATMENT?

Water is often used to remove the generated heat for the process to continue in several industrial processes will generate heat such as:

  • steam generation
  • cooking
  • refining
  • metal foundries
  • or metal casting

The heat can often be removed through water by directly or indirectly contacting the heat source.

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DIRECT COOLING

Direct cooling is water sprayed or applied directly onto a hot process. An example of direct cooling is metal casting where water is sprayed directly on to molten steel. The water is used to cool the steel to create a non-molten shell on the steel. This shell then allows for an even cooling and molten metal solidification.

CONTACT (DIRECT) COOLING - METALS INDUSTRY

When water is applied directly onto the metal this is known as direct cooling or contact cooling. This water will remove heat, cooling the metal. This water also removes any scale or deposits that form on the cooled metal surface.

Often a spray system is used to evenly distribute the water onto the metal surface. Keeping an even spray pattern prevents uneven cooling. Uneven cooling can distort the metal formation and cause operational problems. The solids that contaminate this contact cooling water must be removed along with heat. Contact cooling systems provide solids removal through clarification and/or filtration in addition to heat removal through a cooling tower.

Indirect Cooling

Indirect cooling utilizes a heat transfer device, typically a heat exchanger, so the water does not contact the process directly. A heat exchanger has metal tubes or plates with the hot material on one side and cooling water on the other. The cooling water passes on one side of the heat exchanger with the hot process on the other. The heat passes from the hot side through the metal tubes or plates into the cooling water.

Oil Refining Indirect Cooling

An example of indirect cooling is oil refining. The oil is heated to produce various types of oils, and these heated oils must be cooled for further processing. Heated oil passes on one side of a heat exchanger with cooling water on the other, while the heat passes from the oil into the water.The now heated cooling water passes over a cooling tower where a portion of the hot cooling water evaporates.

A cooling tower is a structure where the heated water cascades from the top over a series of splash plates to create small droplets into a basin. Evaporation removes the heat from the water and latent heat also removes a portion of the heat. Once the heat is removed, this now cooled water is recycled back to the process for additional heat removal.

As the cooling water evaporates it must be replaced with fresh water, but during evaporation contaminates remain behind in the water. Typical contaminates include calcium and magnesium, which are also known as hardness and can cause scale. Because this cooling water is exposed to the environment, it can also be contaminated with dirt or debris which cause deposits or biological material and can cause biofouling. This cooling water can also be corrosive to metal. Scales, deposits, and biological fouling can reduce heat transfer and flow, while corrosion can deteriorate equipment: these issues increase costs and reduce production.

COOLING TOWER - MECHANICAL DRAFT

Cooling towers use evaporation to remove heat from cooling water. Water enters the top of a cooling tower onto a deck; the deck has holes where the water flows through and contacts internal fill. This fill causes the water to splash and creates smaller and smaller droplets. Then, these smaller drops allow for larger surface areas for better heat transfer. The cooled water returns to the process.

1. Cooling Tower: Hot water from cooling a process enters the top of the cooling tower. Through a series of holes on the top deck of the cooling tower water flow from the top to a basin below. Inside the cooling tower is fill, the water splashes upon breaking into small droplets. These small droplets give more surface area allowing for more evaporation and better heat loss.
2. Evaporation: As the warm water passes from the top of a cooling tower to the basin below the water will evaporate: evaporation causes water to cool. This cooling dissipates the heat from the system. Only water evaporates and dissolved material will remain in the water.
3. Makeup: As water evaporates there is a need to replenish the system. Make up is water that replaces evaporated water and any water leaked or removed from the system.
4. Blowdown: As water evaporates the dissolved material remain in the water. As more water evaporates, these dissolved material begin to concentrate, and it is more likely the water will begin to scale. The Brennsperse products reduce the water’s ability to scale.
5. Deck: Is at the top of cooling tower with a series of holes. These holes distribute the water for even flow through the tower.
6. Fill: Internal panels that serve to break the water flow into small droplets for better heat transfer.
7. Basin: Is the reservoir for cooled water.
8. Fan: Pulls air through the tower for air water contact.

COOLING WATER

Manufacturing, cooking, melting, and motor operation all create heat. This heat must be removed for the process by cooling systems which remove this heat. Water is an excellent vehicle for heat removal or heat transfer. A heat exchanger transfers the heat from a process to the water, and evaporation at the cooling tower cools the water. It then is recirculated to the heat exchanger where heat transfer occurs.

1. Cooling Tower: Hot water from cooling a process enters the top of the cooling tower. Through a series of holes on the top deck of the cooling tower water flow from the top to a basin below. Inside the cooling tower is fill, the water splashes upon the fill breaking into smaller droplets. These small droplets give more surface area allowing for more evaporation and better heat loss.
2. Evaporation: As the warm water passes from the top of a cooling tower to the basin below the water will evaporate: evaporation causes water to cool. This cooling dissipates the heat from the system. Only water evaporates and dissolved material will remain in the water.
3. Makeup: As water evaporates there is a need to replenish the system. Makeup is water that replaces evaporated water and any water leaked or removed from the system.
4. Blowdown: As water evaporates the dissolved material remain in the water. As more water evaporates, these dissolved material begin to concentrate, and it is more likely the water will begin to scale. The Brennsperse products reduce the water’s ability to scale.

COOLING WATER TREATMENT PRODUCTS

ProductApplication
 Direct Cooling - Metals IndustryCooling Tower - Mechanical DraftCooling Water
Activated CarbonXXX
AntifoamsXXX
AntiscalantsXXX
BiocidesXXX
BrennflocXXX
BrennsperseXXX
CarbonXXX
CausticXXX
ChlorineXXX
Citric AcidXXX
Corrosion InhibitorsXXX
DefoamersXXX
Filtration MediaXXX
FlocculantsX  
Heavy Metals RemovalX  
Hydrochloric AcidX  
Inorganic CoagulantsX  
Ion Exchange ResinsXXX
LimeX  
Odor Control XX
Organic CoagulantsX  
pH AdjustersXXX
PhosphatesXXX
Phosphonates XX
Resins XX
Salt XX
Scale InhibitorsXXX
Sodium HydroxideXXX
Sulfuric AcidXXX