Brenntag CEE offers a wide range of highly specialised products for oil and natural gas extractive industry. Our products are of the highest quality, allowing to reduce financial costs, improve process performance and increase the quality of the extracted raw material. We approach the needs and requirements of our customers as well as the extracting conditions and the bed parameters individually. We provide professional services and technological support. Brenntag CEE operates logistic infrastructure, technical equipment, including analytical and research laboratory and highly-qualified personnel. Continuous research development and growing number of analytical methods and laboratory tests are used to monitor the quality of delivered products and to improve and develop new products.
If left unchecked, corrosion can lead to a damage or premature failure of equipment and piping. The produced water with dissolved acid gases such as H2S and CO2 can be very corrosive under certain conditions. Factors influencing the corrosiveness of a system include but are not limited to water chemistry, acid gas content, temperature, pressure and fluid dynamics. The type of material affected by the above factors is also important. Two types of inhibitors are available for protection against corrosion: batch and continuous inhibitors.
Batch corrosion inhibitors
Batch corrosion inhibitors are known as “greasy” inhibitors. When applied correctly, they form a thick compact film of inhibitor on the pipe wall. This film forms a physical and chemical barrier to protect the pipe against both general and local corrosion. The film is gradually washed off over time and must be regularly re-applied to maintain anti-corrosion protection. Re-application frequency depends on the surrounding conditions. Batch inhibitors are typically hydrocarbon-soluble substances.
Continuous corrosion inhibitors
Continuous inhibitors are typically water-soluble substances. Volatile components, contained in the inhibitor, disperse into the mist flow regime of the vapour phase, neutralising the pH of acidic water droplets, thereby protecting the upper quadrant of the pipeline. Continuous inhibitors are designed to maintain an integral film on pipe walls. In practice, it means that when an inhibitor molecule detaches from the pipe surface, another inhibitor molecule takes its place. Voids in the inhibitor film are formed constantly and are immediately healed in a “leap-frog” or “cascade” process. It is therefore critical that the minimum product level must be maintained, so an adequate inventory is always available to fill the holes in the film. Corrosion probes or other monitoring techniques are recommended to verify the inhibitor performance during the corrosion programme.
Brenntag CEE offers a full range of batch and continuous inhibitors to provide excellent protection against corrosion:
- TN-08230 – corrosion inhibitor for CO2 systems
- TN-08700 – corrosion inhibitor for H2S and CO2 systems
- TN-08715 – corrosion inhibitor for H2S and CO2 systems
- TN-08980 – vapour-phase corrosion inhibitor
Gas hydrates are white and odourless chemical substances visually similar to ice but with a different crystalline structure. They can occur in wet gas transmission pipelines. Hydrates are complex crystals with a molecule of the produced gas, usually methane, incorporated into the structure and surrounded by water molecules. The formation of hydrates can cause pipeline plugging or other operational problems.
Gas hydrates form especially when the produced hydrocarbon gas and water are under high pressures often present in production facilities. The point at which hydrates will form depends on the gas and fluid composition, temperature and pressure of the system. Traditionally, methanol has been used to control the formation of hydrates. Methanol works by lowering the temperature at which hydrates form at a given pressure. In order for methanol to be effective, the critical temperature must drop below the operating temperature. To control severe hydrate problems, large quantities of methanol are often needed to decrease the hydrate formation temperature to the right level.
Kinetic hydrate inhibitors
Kinetic hydrate inhibitors work in a different way than methanol. While methanol lowers the temperature in which hydrates form, kinetic inhibitors prevent their formation based on a mechanism similar to scale inhibitors formation. The required doses of hydrate inhibitors are determined individually, depending on the conditions. Pressure and temperature drops are also important. It is required that the inhibitor is applied upstream of the areas where hydrates are causing problems.
The use of hydrate inhibitors instead of methanol offers other advantages as well. For example, there are no problems with dissolved oxygen, which could initiate corrosion of the system, the volumes involved are much more manageable and inhibitors do not interfere with any other chemical processes.
Brenntag CEE offers a full range of kinetic hydrate inhibitors, including products designed specifically for low fluid wells, bifunctional hydrate and corrosion inhibitors and ether-based products for quick removal of the existing hydrate plugs. Inhibited methanol is also available:
- TN-10400 – kinetic hydrate inhibitor
- TN-11360 – kinetic corrosion and hydrate inhibitor
- TN-11515 – kinetic corrosion and hydrate inhibitor
- TN-11820 – kinetic corrosion and hydrate inhibitor
- TN-11930 – kinetic corrosion and hydrate inhibitor
Paraffin and asphaltenes are natural compounds that often occur during the production of oil and gas. Paraffins are mixtures of linear or branched alkanes containing more than fifteen carbon atoms per molecule. These substances are solid at room conditions and melt at higher temperatures. Asphaltenes are mixtures of cyclic compounds (mostly aromatic) with high molecular weight. They contain many impurities, including for example nitrogen, oxygen, sulphur and a number of heavy metals. Unlike paraffin, asphaltenes do not melt at higher temperatures. They decompose above 300°C producing coke and gas. The presence of paraffin and asphaltene deposits can cause many problems. Waxes and asphaltenes can deposit as low as at the bottom of the well, in consequence restricting the flow or even completely blocking the pipeline. Asphaltenes can also cause problems in gas facilities. Control of paraffins and asphaltenes is essential for trouble-free exploitation of oil and gas. The optimum choice of a product preventing the deposit formation or removing the existing deposits often depends on the possibility of applying the appropriate technology, the system parameters and the actual facility condition.
Inhibitors and dispersants have very much in common, but they work in a different way. Inhibitors interfere with the formation of wax crystals, thus preventing their deposition. Dispersants emulsify the existing microscopic crystals and prevent them from accumulating, sticking together and creating deposits. Inhibitors are applied on a continuous basis. Dispersants may be applied either on a batch or on a continuous basis, depending on the situation.
Solvents are widely used to remove the existing organic deposits. They are designed for specific uses and applications. Due to diversity of deposits, solvents with different components are developed to maximise product performance and optimise its quantity. Brenntag CEE selects the type of solvent from a wide range of products, basing on the field and laboratory tests.
Our offer includes a full range of inhibitors and dispersants as well as paraffin and asphaltene solvents:
- TN-09020 – paraffin inhibitor
- TN-09100 – paraffin inhibitor
- TN-09150 – paraffin inhibitor
- TN-12020 – paraffin dispersant
- TN-13010 – paraffin solvent
Demulsifiers are specifically formulated mixtures of surfactants designed to remove water contained in the extracted oil. Demulsifiers affect the water/oil mutual influence and improve the efficiency of separation. In addition, they enable to eliminate solids, reduce the amount of slop or off-spec oil and obtain clean water.
Brenntag CEE offers a wide range of speciality demulsifiers, based on various active compounds. Selection of the correct product is usually made directly in the oilfield using bottle tests.
To protect the environment, Brenntag CEE offers also a number of “green” emulsifiers. They consist of environmentally friendly active ingredients. Both batch and continuous demulsifiers are available.
H2S is a poisonous gas often present in the produced fluids. Apart from being toxic, H2S can cause severe corrosion problems. For this reason, H2S is often removed from the produced gas. In marginally sour systems the most economical and efficient method of purifying gas is through the use of hydrogen sulphide scavengers. As opposed to amine compounds, these substances require only minimal investments. They are ideal for use in marginally sour systems that cannot economically justify more elaborate amine systems but still require the use of gas free of corrosive components. H2S scavengers are formulated to quickly and selectively remove H2S from a gas stream.
Hydrogen sulphide scavengers may be applied by either continuous injection into the gas stream or through the use of bubble columns. H2S scavengers offered by Brenntag CEE do not contain free formaldehyde.
- TN-04052 – H2S scavenger
- TN-04055 – H2S scavenger
Brenntag CEE supplies a wide variety of scale inhibitors formulated for use in various conditions to prevent the formation of such deposits in pipe-lines and oil facilities. Scale inhibitors disrupt the growth of salt crystals and thus the deposition of scales on equipment is prevented. Scale inhibitors are typically injected on a continuous basis into the water, although certain products may be squeezed into the bed to protect down-hole drilling equipment against deposit formation. In order to be effective, the scale inhibitor must be applied upstream of where the scale deposit is occurring. The choice of a scale inhibitor depends on the severity of the scaling problem, water chemistry (calcium tolerance) and the application method.
We offer a range of scale inhibitors, including products formulated for high temperatures, vary-ing calcium tolerances and various methods of squeezing into the bed.
- TN-06340 – scale inhibitor
- TN-07355 – salt (NaCl) inhibitor
Under certain conditions, production in low pressure gas wells may become blocked by the development of water plugs. Water accumulates down-hole in the well since the gas pressure is not sufficient to lift the water out of the well. The water build-up down-hole may be reduced or even stopped by water head accumulation.
When the produced water head pressure is balanced by gas diffusion pressure, applied to the water inside the geological formation, the wells load up and stop functioning. To revive the well, water must be removed. This is often done by blowing the well down manually. The application of foaming agents is an alternative to the practice of manually blowing down the well when it loads up with water. They work by foaming the water down-hole so that the gas may lift it out of the well.
The foam lifetime is short, so problems in downstream separators are not an issue. Sometimes it is necessary to administer an anti-foamer. The foaming water in order to unload the well has numerous advantages as improved gas inflow and production with less downtime is achieved. A significant increase in productivity is often possible with foaming programmes in place.
Brenntag CEE offers both liquid and solid foaming agents.
Solid foaming agents
Foaming sticks are specifically formed rolls containing 100% of water-soluble surfactants, lubricants and foam stabilisers. Foaming candles support the carryover of the bed water from gas wells, especially those exploiting under-packer horizons and from low productivity wells with lowered bed pressures. They are used in concentrations of 0.2-0.6kg per 1m3 of water.
Liquid foaming agents
Liquid foaming agents are applied by means of continuous injection. Typical injection rates are in the range of 0.5 to 4 litres per day. Batch application of foamers is not recommended due to uncontrollable foam carry-over to compressors or other equipment with separators.
Desiccant tablets consist of hygroscopic compounds, which absorb water vapour from the compressed air or gas streams. The surface of a desiccant tablet dissolves slowly forming brine, which drips from the tablet surface onto the bottom of the drying column. Tablets dissolve steadily until their complete consumption. They are produced in a conventional tabletting process in which raw materials are ground and mixed and then formed into tablets using a 15 tonne press.
Brenntag CEE offers three types of tablets for economical gas drying to the desired parameters.
- Calcium chloride tablets for gas pre-drying, used in the first column, absorb a large portion of the moisture contained in the gas. This solution is the most economical one, as it allows lithium chloride tablets in the second stage to perform in-depth drying of gas while prolonging their lifetime.
- Lithium chloride tablets are three times more efficient than standard desiccants. They make it possible for moisture to be thoroughly eliminated from gas (air). They can be used individually or in conjunction with calcium chloride tablets. The latter option offers the most optimum drying results in terms of value for money.
- Hydroxylith tablets combine the properties of chloride calcium and chloride lithium tablets. They are characterised by excellent drying properties and are recommended for use as independent charge.
Molecular sieves are adsorbents widely used in oil and natural gas extractive industry and petrochemical industry. They are nanoporous materials with a precise pore size range and the ability to selectively adsorb molecules of particular chemical compounds. Molecular sieves are also used as desiccants for most gases and liquids.
Brenntag CEE offers mainly zeolite molecular sieves of various pore diameter ranging from 3Å to 10Å and of the bead size ranging from 1.6mm to 5mm. Using the proper type of aluminosilicate molecular sieves or a combination thereof enables the adsorption of many types of gases and gas mixtures. These include water, hydrogen sulphide, carbon monoxide and dioxide, oxygen and nitrogen. Molecular sieves are valued for their high adsorption capacity and high selectivity. It is also important that they are chemically inert recoverable materials. Molecular sieves retain their capacity at temperatures higher than alumina or silica gel.
Brenntag CEE also offers the above-listed desiccants such as activated alumina and silica gel as well as active carbon, which adsorbs heavy metals and is used to remove many impurities.
Micro-organisms in oil and gas systems may be naturally occurring or be the result of contamination from poor operational practices, such as using untreated water for well work-overs. Bacteria typically found in oilfield applications are anaerobic (organism which can live under oxygenfree conditions). The presence of bacteria in oil facilities can have numerous negative repercussions. Bacteria may foul the equipment or lead to other operational problems. They may foul the equipment or accelerate corrosion in oil production facilities (SRBs). Not only do they form colonies providing perfect conditions for under-deposit corrosion but their metabolism also contributes to corrosion by the formation of acidic or sour conditions.
Micro-organisms can be identified by testing water samples using field test kits. The presence of bacteria may also be confirmed by the services which are offered by external labora-tories. These tests are based on epifluorescence and other microscopic techniques. It is critical for the operation of the production facilities to control the bacterial cultures present. The use of biocides makes an economic way of bacteria control and prevention. They penetrate into the bio-film and create the environment which is toxic to bacteria.
Brenntag CEE offers a full range of biocides.
Brenntag CEE, as the world’s leading distributor of chemicals, offers a wide selection of chemical substances commonly used in oil and natural gas extractive industry. These include various types of glycols such as ethylene glycol (MEG), diethylene glycol (DEG) and triethylene glycol (TEG), high-quality amines: monoethanolamine (MEA), diethanolamine (DEA), methyldiethanolamine (MDEA) and many other products.